Pollster.com

Articles and Analysis

 

Rasmussen: NH, HI, CO, AL, MD (9/23)

Topics: PHome

Rasmussen Reports
Mode: IVR

Alabama (9/22/08; 500 LV, 4.5%)
McCain 60, Obama 39
Sen: Sessions (R-i) 59, Figures (D) 30

Colorado (9/23/08; 700 LV, 4%)
Obama 50, McCain 47
Sen: Udall (D) 46, Schaffer (R) 44

Hawaii (9/23/08, 500 LV, 4.5%)
Obama 68, McCain 27

Maryland (9/20/08; 500 LV, 4.5%)
Obama 60, McCain 37

New Hampshire (9/23/08; 700 LV, 4%)
McCain 49, Obama 47
Sen: Sununu (R-i) 52, Shaheen 45

 

Comments
falcon79:

first!!!
:D

____________________

Mike_in_CA:

Obama is winning HawaiI? I don't believe it. I need to see internals.

/snark

____________________

AmericaFirst:

What a tease on CO!

____________________

IndependentThinker:

Polling Hawaii is ludicrous ...

____________________

Stillow:

coming soon....i love it!

____________________

carl29:

HI? Oh child....The New Hampshire poll looks like yesterday's. The down side is that Rasmussen doesn't show his demographics nor party ID. If I had to bet, I will say that it is closer to Rasmussen/yesterday's poll.

____________________

KipTin:

I guess this trumps (or at least neutralizes) the Marist poll in New Hampshire.

____________________

carl29:

falcon79, I love that happy face!!!

____________________

NW Patrick:

Rasmussen has shown McCain up 2 now twice in NH. Marrist and CNN show 6.

____________________

carl29:

"Obama is winning HawaiI? I don't believe it. I need to see internals."

Hillarious, Mike :-)

____________________

AmericaFirst:

General Election Results:

coming soon...

LOL

____________________

Hope Reborn:

there goes my secret plan to canvas Hawaii on election day... i guess it's not a toss up afterall

____________________

Stillow:

NH clearly has an attitude problem....a lonely little yellow state surrounded by deep dark blue states.....

____________________

Hope Reborn:

reading the internals of the NH poll, I think the party ID may be out of whack.

Obama has a 9% lead among Independents and identical margin with Democrats.

Are we to believe that NH has that big a tilt towards Republicans suddenly? Also in the crosstabs, Obama only has a 2% lead among women, another tough one to swallow.

____________________

thoughtful:

I thought Monday was an Exciting Day!

Ras has got NH wrong, that's my gut feel.

____________________

boomshak:

@Mike_in_CA:

"Obama is winning HawaiI? I don't believe it. I need to see internals."

Ha!

They are oversampling sea turtles.

____________________

StandardDeviation:

@KipTin:

I generally disagree with most of your posts, but I think you're probably right on this NH poll being closer to reality (disclosure, I live in NH).

Kerry won NH in '04, but he was from neighboring MA and beat Bush (who NH is not particularly fond of). "Live Free or Die" NH likes McCain better than Bush, and we apparently like Hillary better than Obama.

One possibility for the surprise NH primary result was that you can vote in either primary if your independent...which many are. A simple signature returns you to independent after you vote in a Dem or Repub primary...I think the primary surprise came from polls showing Obama with a comfortable lead in NH, so many of us decided to vote in the Repub primary. I almost did so myself thinking Obama was safe.

So in one way the primary may have understated Obama's support...that said, a lot of people who were planning to vote Obama in the Dem primary voted McCain in the Repub primary as that race was more competitive...to make a long story short...NH seems to have a lot of independent lovin' for McCain.

My money is on a squeaker 2-point win in NH...I'd be hard pressed to pick the winner though.

____________________

ReprobateMind:

Stillow wrote:
"NH clearly has an attitude problem...a lonely little yellow state surrounded by deep dark blue states..."

The anchor of reason.

____________________

Mike_in_CA:

actually, Hope, Republicans outnumber Dems by ~5-6% in NH, but Independents blow them both out of the water. That's why NH is such a hard nut to crack. Reps 32%, Dems 25%, Indies 45% or something like that...

In fact, being from the Northeast originally, I can attest to the fact that most of those New England states have high percentages of independents (in CT, where I'm from, Indies outnumber the other parties). Most people associate the region with Dems, but thats only because indies have been siding with Dems. But the large number of indies help explain how this region suddenly shifted left from right after the 80s....

____________________

Stillow:

@thoughtful:

Have you tried a gut check?

____________________

boomshak:

@thoughtful:

"I thought Monday was an Exciting Day!

Ras has got NH wrong, that's my gut feel."

No, actually that that bad gyro you ate for lunch. The cucumber sauce turned on you...

____________________

carl29:

Guys, how has Rasmussen's demographics and party ID? If we don't have those very important details, how are we going to judge the poll? No one can say for sure that he got it right nor that he got it wrong.

Anybody here registered with Rasmussen as a premium member? I don't :-(

____________________

carl29:

I can tell you for sure that the party breakdown that Marist has is right on it with 2004: Rep. 32%, Dem. 25%, Ind. 44%.

At least the party ID is right. Now... if they are oversampling women or younger people or more college educated people or anything like that, I have no idea.

____________________

boomshak:

PROOF JOHN MCCAIN TRIED TO REFORM FREDDIE MAC:

"Statement by Senator John McCain, May 25, 2006:

Mr. President, this week Fannie Mae's regulator reported that the company's quarterly reports of profit growth over the past few years were "illusions deliberately and systematically created" by the company's senior management, which resulted in a $10.6 billion accounting scandal.

The Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight's report goes on to say that Fannie Mae employees deliberately and intentionally manipulated financial reports to hit earnings targets in order to trigger bonuses for senior executives. In the case of Franklin Raines, Fannie Mae's former chief executive officer, OFHEO's report shows that over half of Mr. Raines' compensation for the 6 years through 2003 was directly tied to meeting earnings targets. The report of financial misconduct at Fannie Mae echoes the deeply troubling $5 billion profit restatement at Freddie Mac.

The OFHEO report also states that Fannie Mae used its political power to lobby Congress in an effort to interfere with the regulator's examination of the company's accounting problems. This report comes some weeks after Freddie Mac paid a record $3.8 million fine in a settlement with the Federal Election Commission and restated lobbying disclosure reports from 2004 to 2005. These are entities that have demonstrated over and over again that they are deeply in need of reform.

For years I have been concerned about the regulatory structure that governs Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac--known as Government-sponsored entities or GSEs--and the sheer magnitude of these companies and the role they play in the housing market. OFHEO's report this week does nothing to ease these concerns. In fact, the report does quite the contrary. OFHEO's report solidifies my view that the GSEs need to be reformed without delay.

I join as a cosponsor of the Federal Housing Enterprise Regulatory Reform Act of 2005, S. 190, to underscore my support for quick passage of GSE regulatory reform legislation. If Congress does not act, American taxpayers will continue to be exposed to the enormous risk that Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac pose to the housing market, the overall financial system, and the economy as a whole.

I urge my colleagues to support swift action on this GSE reform legislation."

____________________

Batony:

Hmmm still 47(obama-44(mccain according to Gallup

____________________

thoughtful:

@Stillow & Boomshak

2 other polls have it at +6, I'd be surprised if NH didn't follow the national polls. Obama is doing much better than Kerry ergo minimum +2 in NH and is somewhere so the pollsters are there near the MOE. I just think though Ras has got this wrong and the report from the internals points that way too!

Your man/woman better come up with something as the other guys are building an unassailable lead. Maybe he can stop the bailout and the economy completely crashes.

____________________

marctx:

"bad gyro" hahaha.

____________________

nick-socal:

Even Karl Rove thinks NH belongs to Obama

____________________

thoughtful:

@Boomshak

Why did the Senate not follow John McCain's leadership?

____________________

ArizonaDream:

Why is MN again yellow? Have I missed a poll today?

____________________

Batony:

Karl Rove can't stand John McCain and vice-versa. McCain will win in NH. They really like him up there. New Hampshire is great example of why Obama supporters shouldn't overly excited about the polls. I believe Obama supposedly had a 10 point lead over Hillary in NH?

____________________

change:

After teaming up with Fox, i no longer trust rasmussen. its like a country teaming up with al qada- actually fox news is worse then al qada!

____________________

Tyler:

MN never changed back to blue. It was WI that changed back to blue recently.

____________________

Stillow:

@change

lol, you must be a msnbc viewer......you and 8 other people!

____________________

macsuk:

Batony

Hmmm Obama 48) McClame 42) according to hotline

____________________

KipTin:

Gallup (RV) Obama 47/McCain 44 and Diego/Hotline (RV) Obama 48/42 makes sense.

Rasmussen (LV) Obama 49/McCain 47 makes sense.
Battleground Tracking (LV) Obama 46/McCain 48 makes sense.

Daily Kos (LV) Obama 48/McCain 44 would make sense if it was registered voters, but it is likely voters. Best just to look at its trends instead of comparing to LV polls (or compare to RV polls). Note: Daily Kos had Obama +8 (9/20) and it has been dropping to now +4.

____________________

KipTin:

New Hampshire knows McCain. He won there in the Republican primaries in 2000 and 2008.

____________________

Batony:

Macsuk:

That polls was posted hours ago, gallup just came out at 1pm. Which is why I posted it. Don't understand your comment.

Change:

So now you no longer trust Rasmussen? So I guess you didn't like his poll with Obama up by 8 in Minnesota, which shows a bigger lead than any other poll taken in the state. So I guess McCain supporters should ignore any NBC, ABC or CBS New York Times poll? C'mon people...good grief.

____________________

NW Patrick:

Battleground Tracking (LV) Obama 46/McCain 48 makes sense? 2% Dem advantage in weighting? DREAM ON LOL

____________________

carl29:

Batony,

Thanks for bringing up the NH issue. Hillary unexpectedly won in NH because every poll was underepresenting women. If you go back and check every poll, previously to the primary, women were at the most 52% of the projected electorate; however, on election day women made up 58% of people voting, a incredible turnout. Whom was behind this turnout: feminist organizations like NOW, Emily's List, Planned Parenthood, and those pro-choice groups that galvanized women by suggesting that Obama wasn't strong enough on Abortion rights. Guess on who's side are those groups now? Tip...they are thinking about Supreme Court and Roe v. Wade.

Now, wait for those same groups to galvanize women against the most anti-choice ticket in recent history. I read that those feminist groups have collected a lot of money after Palin's nomination. It doesn't mean that they will defeat McCain/Palin, but surely it seems that a)those groups know how to mobilize women up there b)look like those women are very pro-choice. We'll see :-)

____________________

nick-socal:

There is no way that McCain up by 2% makes sense.

____________________

carl29:

"New Hampshire knows McCain. He won there in the Republican primaries in 2000 and 2008."

Is McCain perceived as the same man he was back in 2000 or January 2008, for that matter?

I don't know. Surely, women in New Hampshire will pay attention to McCain/Palin's abortion stance and the next Supreme Court justice. Remember that NOW, Emily's List, Planned Parenthood and those feminist organizations were behind the incredible women turnout in the New Hampshire primary. Expect the same push against McCain's ticket. It seems that women in New Hampshire are fiercely pro-choice and feminist organizations know how to galvanize them.

____________________

kkpollster:

Hey re:tracking polls. I could easily discount most of the polls like ABC, as their performance last two times around was so dismal. However, Battleground Tracking (the Terrance version no the Big 10 no relation) is the one who nailed it on the nose, the exact percentage to the tenth of a point. I think Dems may be in for a big surprise if they start coasting through an ABC 9pt lead. That would mean since they had Mac up by 3 a week or so ago that there is a 12 pt swing. Show me one state poll that shows a 12 point swing, where it counts...

____________________

Batony:

Carl 29,

This is not the most anti-choice ticket ever. Plus, there are a lot of women who are against abortions. NH will not be decided b/c of abortion. As a Democrat, I get so tired of hearing how NOW, Emily's list, etc have mobilized and we still end up losing. This is not the general election and NH is not Mass.

____________________

macsuk:

New Fox Poll O 45% M 39%

____________________

Stillow:

@carl29

Your side still underestimates Palin's appeal to everyday average women....it mayshock you, but women are not single issue voters.....and most women do not beleong to radical liberal nutcase groups like planned parenthood who think abortion is a great and glorious thing.

____________________

KipTin:

The Democrats torpedoed McCain's proposal. They did not want to restrict mortgages and look where that got us.

Notably, Democrats who headed Fannie Mae (Jim Johnson 1991-98 and Franklin Raines 1999-2004) are responsible for the problems that led McCain to push reform. Jim Johnson was a major part of the Obama campaign (VP selection committee and advisor) until he got into some more financial controvery for directly receiving preferred loans from Countrywide (major player in subprime mortgage crisis).

Note, it was FreddieMac and FannieMae CEOs (including Johnson and Raines) who lobbied bigtime in Congress to keep from being "reformed." Blame them and the Democrats in Congress for that mortgage crisis.

____________________

NW Patrick:

Wow did anyone see Palin's witch doctor video. SCAREY! http://www.huffingtonpost.com/max-blumenthal/the-witch-hunter-anoints_b_128805.html

____________________

carl29:

Batony,

As a pro-life myself, I don't understand why abortion is an issue that seems to mobilize women, but it surely does. I remember when the New Hampshire primary, women were receiving flyiers accusing Obama of voting present on abortion-related issues. The Planned Parenthood of Chicago explained why he did it, and that they asked him to do it.

I am not a member of any pro-choice group, of course. But it seems that they influence some women, especially up north. To me, it looks like New Hampshire is more of a liberatian state, not a southern-republican state. Do those Independents still consider McCain a Maverick? We don't know. The only thing we know is that in both poll, Rasmussen and Marist, Obama has the edge among Independents. This could give us an idea of who is now perceived more of a mainstream for that people. Again, we'll see :-)

____________________

MB1122:

@Boomshak

Indeed McCain did co-sponsor the in 2005 after which his party killed it - specifically Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Chairman Richard Shelby (R-Alabama) - by never getting it out of committee.

However, McCain did NOT support it when it was re-introduced in 2007 (S.1100), so I question his actual motivation for reform here (and MOST of his actual motivations really). In addition, if he had truly been interested in reform as he professes, he would have been talking about oversight and regulation of speculators and re-instating some measure of separation between investment and commercial banking.

Plus, he was the the chairman of the Senate Committee on Commerce on and off between 1997 and 2005 - he didn't seem too interested in regulation then either.

Face it - he has been singing the same tune for a long time.

____________________

Stillow:

@KipTin

You are correct, the Dems are neck deep in this Freddie and Fannie mess....this is McCain's golden goose. If he can get the facts out this is ahuge plus for him.....the Dems are scared of this issue....if the GOP were to blame, Pelosi woudl be demanding investigations and hearings up the wazoo....but since its Dems who are all behind this mess,she won't do that.....Pelosi want sanything but an investigation....because the results would not be good for the Dems.

____________________

NW Patrick:

WOW DOWN 6 in a FOX poll? The tide is shifting folks..no doubt about it.

____________________

carl29:

Guys,

Actually, I have more in common with Palin at a social issues level than any of you could imagine. The only thing is that I don't vote base on social issues. To me, "morality" is something private. Actually, in all honesty, I think all those feminist brought shame on women. Sorry but that is my opinion. However, the majority of women don't like the idea of the government or the pastor telling them what to do with their own bodies. Somehow they think that the mere assumption of it is an insult. I don't see it like that because of my strong pro-life background, but they seem to take it that way.

____________________

NW Patrick:

Kip you are HILARIOUS. McCain is getting ALL the coverage today about his campaign manager's ties to lobbiests for the Maes. LOL

From the FOX news +6 Obama poll: Unfair Attacks

The presidential candidates say they want to run respectful campaigns focused on the issues — so are they? Almost half of voters (47 percent) think McCain has made unfair attacks against Obama — somewhat higher than the 36 percent who think Obama is hitting below the belt.

____________________

Pat:

FOX News Poll: Obama Reclaims Lead Over McCain, 45% to 39%

The new poll finds Obama now has the edge among men (+5 percentage points) — a group that had previously either been evenly divided or slightly in McCain's column. Obama maintains his advantage among women voters (+8), while white women are a bit more likely to support McCain (+2).

____________________

cabos101:

I think NH is a tie, at the moment...though we'll see. This is the type of state that could be really influenced by the momentum post debates of either candidate...

____________________

MB1122:

@Kiptin (and @Boomshak)

Fannie and Freddie are only part of the crisis - so even if S. 190 had made it to the floor for a vote by the REPUBLICAN controlled congress, and they were actually serious about passing it and did so, it wouldn't have gotten at the root of this problem. Fannie and Freddie weren't writing the mortgages - I'm not saying they are blameless, but it really seems like this is a pretty feeble attempt by McCain to claim SOME sort of attempt at reform when it really wasn't.

____________________

Batony:

The poll is not done by Fox, it was done by Opinion Dynamics Corp. That 39% is pretty low compared to others, but it's just another poll.

The only polls I want to see the rest of the way from PA, CO, Va, OH, MI, MN and FL. Those states will decide this election.

____________________

MB1122:

I should elaborate and specify that while Fannie and Freddie don't write mortgages, they do buy and package them - so of course they are part of the problem. But to say the McCain 'tried to reform' them is a pretty weak argument, especially when you consider that many of Fannie and Freddie's former lobbyists are now working for McCain.

____________________

zotz:

"FOX News Poll: Obama Reclaims Lead Over McCain, 45% to 39%"

I knew it. What did I say? Just like I was tellin' Batony FOX is in the tank for Obama!
They pretend to be fair and balanced but they are really a front organization for the commies at the New York Times.

____________________

carl29:

Batony,

"The poll is not done by Fox, it was done by Opinion Dynamics Corp."

Each and every poll from Fox this election cycle has been conducted by Opinion Dynamics Corp. You can check for yourself :-)

____________________

Batony:

I wish they would lay off the lobbyists...both parties use them. Basically if there weren't lobbyist in DC, there would be no K street. Obama claims he uses no lobbyist in DC, but outside of DC it's okay. So bogus.

Before I moved to this town, I use to be so naive about politicians and the media...now I see right through the BS on both sides.

____________________

carl29:

Batony,

FOX News/Opinion Dynamics Poll conducted Fox's poll in 2004 as well.

____________________

NW Patrick:

Batony the problem is it's JOHN MCCAIN who is always RAILING against lobbiest and earmarks. Earmarks make up for a MINUTE amount of the federal budget. McCain wants to bring light to LOBBIEST..then his campaign and their ties are fair game. DONT BE A HYPOCRITE MCCAIN.

____________________

Batony:

Carl29:

That's what I said, the poll is done by Opinion Dynamics for Fox. Don't they do polls for CNN? So many polling firms...

Colorado, Montana, Wisconsin, West Virginia and Pennsylvania have been polled by CNN coming out at around 4pm...anyone want to guess what they will look like. It's CNN, so I'm going to say Obama with a 5 to 7 lead in 3 states with McCain having a 1 to 2 point lead in Wva and Montana.

____________________

thoughtful:

Colorado +8; Wisconsin +10;Pa + 5 for Obama; WV +3 McCain; Montana +1 McCain

That's my CNN prediction

____________________

sunnymi:

NH voter registration status as of 8/18/08:
Republicans: 263,217 (30.5%)
Democrats: 268,108 (31.0%)
Independents: 332,217 (38.5%)

If Rasmussen used the above numbers for his Party ID he should arrive at what is shown below:

Obama:
Dems: 88% of 31% = 27.28
Reps: 08% of 30.5 = 2.44
Inds: 47 – 27.28 - 2.44 = 17.28

McCain:
Reps: 92% of 30.5% = 28.06
Dems: 12% of 31.0 = 3.36
Inds: 49 – 28.06 – 3.36 = 17.58


He is saying Obama is getting a modest lead among Independents but the calculation above shows otherwise.

____________________

marctx:

WTF - "cracker vote"

Bill Clinton: Will respect Jewish holidays, then 'hustle up ... cracker vote' in Florida

http://www.politico.com/blogs/bensmith/0908/Bill_Clinton_Will_respect_Jewish_holidays_then_hustle_up__cracker_vote_in_Florida.html?showall

____________________

NW Patrick:

Obama up 2 in NV:) I know BAD POLL.

____________________

pion:

@Boomshak: Concerning S.190, I posted this a couple of days ago,but it's still relevant. If you can explain why McCain did not support the same bill, S.1100, in 2007 despite his 'deep' interest in reforming FM^2, please let us know.

1) That bill was introduced by Chuck Hagel and co-sponsored by E. Dole and J. Sununu in January 2005.

2) Johnny come lately co-sponsored it in May 2006---it died with the new session of congress after the 2006 elections (bills can not be carried over from one session to the next)

3) The senate bill did not get traction partly because it competed with a house bill (which passed the house). The house bill provided monies to fund affordable housing initiatives while the senate version did not.

4) Chuck Hagel re-introduced the bill (now called S.1100) in April 2007. Co-sponsors were: E. Dole, J. Sununu and M. Martinez. McCain is not a co-sponsor on that bill. What happened? Did he change his mind?

5) Chuck Hagel, the Republican senator from Nebraska, did *not* endorse McCain and has made clear that he is sympathetic to Obama---he accompanied Obama on his recent trip to the Middle East and Europe and said he would accept a VP nomination from Obama before the Biden nod.

6) The current financial melt-down would not have occurred without the Gramm-Leach-Bliley act of 1999. Three sub-facts:

a) McCain voted for for the act in 1999.
b) Gramm is McCain's economic advisor.
c) McCain refers to himself as fundamentally
a deregulator

____________________

Batony:

This is why John McCain's stance against earmarks is a little dumb. If every congressman is getting earmarks for their state, he is doing a disservice to the people of Arizona. And as for Alaska, it's almost it's the size of a small country...of course they need money for their infrastructure.

____________________

NorseSoccer:

Interesting outlier on the NH Senate Race. This is the first poll that puts Sununu ahead and by such a margin!

Iiiiinteresting.

____________________

KipTin:

In Colorado, Democratic Senate candidate Udall is now only ahead by two. The trend does not look good for him.

____________________

rami:

Alabama (9/22/08; 500 LV, 4.5%)
Pres coming soon...

What an horrible teasing, AL is such an unknown :)

____________________

jswarren:

You SUCK Rasmussen. How can you leave us on the edge of our seat for hours like this?

____________________

faithhopelove:

Right-leaning Rasmussen appears to have over-sampled Republicans in NH. Most if not all other polls of the senate race there are not nearly as optimistic for the Republican.

Considering the numbers Rasmussen shares in this poll's narrative, it seems he has either far more Republicans than Democrats in his poll or a roughly even number of Republicans, Democrats, and independents (which would be an under-sample of independents, who make up about 40% of NH's electorate).

____________________

NW Patrick:

Obama leads by 3 in Colorado per Rasmussen. 5 point swing from RAS last poll I believe. :) WOW.

____________________

KipTin:

Rasmussen states "Over last four Colorado polls, each candidate has had a slight advantage twice and the two men have never been more than three percentage points apart."

McCain/Obama over last four polls:
Sept 23: 47/50
Sept 14: 48/46
Sept 07: 46/49
Aug 13: 47/45

____________________

KipTin:

I notice that Colorado is back to "toss-up."

____________________

faithhopelove:

7 CO polls in a row from 6 different pollsters have shown Obama ahead in CO.

CO is one of 4 states in which Obama has just increased his ad spending. See:
http://politicalwire.com/archives/2008/09/24/obama_ramps_up_ad_spending.html

Obama has raised more $ than McCain in 41 of 62 CO counties--meaning more CO voters are invested in Obama than in McCain. See:
http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/26833397/

Obama's ground game in CO is stronger than McCain's--Obama has 31 field offices, McCain has just 9.

____________________

Dvd Avins:

The New Hampshire Senate poll shows Sununnu up 7. Ras's previous poll showed Shaheen up 9, which is about what every other pollster is showing. Either the NH sampling was way off or there's been a *massive* shift in NH-Sen. Given that the NH-Pres results are also novel and in the same direction and that I know of no recent events that would cause New Hampshire to move in the opposite direction from the rest of the country, I'd bet the sampling was the problem.

____________________

This state is crucial for Obama. Unless he wins VA, FLA, OH, or NV (all of which he trails) he must win NH to break 270. The state polls seem to lag the nationals in terms of Obama's lead. Recent U of NH and Rasmussen polls in NH are disquieting. Maybe NV where Democratic registration is trending Dem. will take us over the top. Obviously Im a Dem and I support Obama vs the two hysterics.

____________________



Post a comment




Please be patient while your comment posts - sometimes it takes a minute or two. To check your comment, please wait 60 seconds and click your browser's refresh button. Note that comments with three or more hyperlinks will be held for approval.

MAP - US, AL, AK, AZ, AR, CA, CO, CT, DE, FL, GA, HI, ID, IL, IN, IA, KS, KY, LA, ME, MD, MA, MI, MN, MS, MO, MT, NE, NV, NH, NJ, NM, NY, NC, ND, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VT, VA, WA, WV, WI, WY, PR